Research Paper in Science Research by Garma, Mayubay & Opelac (2009) :: CHAPTER 4: Research Institutes and its Studies

(NOTE: The following is a part of the research paper that I made together with Mar Louie Mayubay and Mari Gay Magdalene Opelac in June 2009. If anyone would like to use this for research work, please do the necessary citation, as this is a part of an unpublished academic paper.)

A. Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD)

>It is one of the sectoral councils of the Department of Science and Technology. It serves as the main arm of DOST in planning, evaluating, monitoring, and coordinating the national research and development (R&D) programs in agriculture, forestry, environment, and natural resources sectors. (PCARRD Website, 26 June 2009)

A1. Past Studies

>Radiosensitivity of Spathoglottis plicata determined through acute gamma irradiation (Aurigue, Gonzales and Labiano, 2007 as cited by PCARRD Website, 26 June 2009)

The most common ground orchid in the Philippines is Spathoglottis plicata. It is also the most popular Spathoglottis species in the world. The variation in flower color gave rise to several taxonomic varieties and within each variety, differences in plant characteristics were observed. Using mutation induction by gamma irradiation, Aurigue, Gonzales, and Lobiano (PNRI) determined the radiosensitivity of mature embryos, young protocorms, and in vitroderived seedlings of Spathoglottis to examine if these natural variations can be reproduced artificially, and thereby develop novel types such as dwarf or compact plants, variegated leaves, and improved flower qualities.

>Rapid Propagation of Selected Philippine Cassava Varieties through Tissue Culture (Acedo and Labana, 2008 as cited by PCARRD Website, 27 June 2009)

In the Philippines, cassava is utilized as food, feed and raw material for industrial uses.  At present, there are 29 recommended high yielding cassava varieties. However, there is still a need to develop rapid propagation technique to meet the demand for planting materials in order to increase production.  The demand for planting materials has drastically increased due to the use of cassava as source of biofuel.

Conventionally propagated cassava plants are exposed to disease-causing microorganisms in the field, which are carried over from one generation to the next contributing to the reduction in potential yield.  Researchers then, realized the need to develop a meristem culture technique for Philippine cassava varieties to ensure the production of clean planting materials. A meristem is a group of undifferentiated
plant cells that can divide and form all types of tissues.  Such cells can be found at growth tips. The meristem culture technique has been used to eliminate viruses in a number of important crops.  It was also used to rejuvenate cassava planting materials resulting in high yield.

B2. Present Studies

>Papaya Ringspot Virus-Resistant GM Papaya (Magdalita, Dolores, Galvez, and Taylo, 2009 as cited by PCARRD Website, 2009)

Local papaya production suffered tremendously due to the ringspot virus. Thus, developing a virus resistant variety is expected to make a big and lasting impact on the papaya industry. The application of genetic engineering to develop a ringspot resistant papaya offers the most promising approach to manage the virus. Magdalita and co-workers (2007) have been working on this area from July 1999 to the present.

>Wild Orchids from Selected Places in Mindanao (Solidum, 2009 as cited by PCARRD Website, 26 June 2009)

A number of wild orchids are found in the Philippines. However, many wild orchids are now endangered because of the destruction of their natural habitats and indiscriminate collection. Efforts should be made to propagate these plants and maintain them in botanical gardens. Toward this end, Solidum (CMU) collected, propagated, and maintained wild orchids from selected areas in Mindanao and transferred them to the Mt. Musuan Zoological and Botanical Garden. Wild species of orchids were collected from Mt. Malindang,Misamis Occidental; Mt. Hamiguitan, Davao; Mt. Kalatungan, Bukidnon; and from Kisaray, a jungle village and ancestral domain, in Malaybalay, Bukidnon from October 2004 to April 2006

B3. Future Studies

>Dairy Goats Research Project (Alaminos Goat Farm Website, 27 June 2009)

Last June 4 2009, PCARRD, in cooperation of the National Dairy Authority, assigned the Alaminos Goat Farm in Southern Tagalog Region as a Science Technology Based Farm for the the Goat Research Project. The study aims to come up with the volume, quality of goat’s milk produce by pedigreed Saanen milking goats. It aims to indentify high performing milking goats and confirm the 300 days lactation period of the Saanen milking goats being recorded in AGF the past milking season.

B. Mariano Marcos State University – Research Directorate (MMSU – RD)

Research and Development (R&D) is one of the main concerns of the Vice President for Research, Extension, and Business Affairs (VPREBA). It is coordinated by the university’s R&D Directorate, which act as the central planning, coordinating, monitoring and implementing unit for R&D activities of the university. College and special/consortia projects are linked with directorate through College Research Coordinators and project leaders, respectively. (MMSU-Research Directorate Website, 27 June 2009)

B1. Past Studies

>Management of Garlic Storage Pests (Pascua, Gabriel, Layaoen, Fermin, Antonio and Pablico, 2008)

There are appropriate treatments and storage techniques to be applied to harvested garlic in order to reduce damage and fungal infestation. Dipping the garlic bulbs in hot water then storing them in boxes, prolonged their shelf life. Storing garlic bulbs in boxes with dried lagundi leaves minimized weight loss and bulb damage, hence higher economic benefit is derived. On the contrary, bulbs intended for planting could be stored by piling with lagundi leaves after 4 months.

>MMSU Fresh Market Tomato Hybrids for Off-Season Planting (Nalundasan, Ruguian, and Alpuerto, 1998)

Tomato during the off-season, i.e., wet season (WS), commands a very high price. However, farmers in the Ilocos seldom grow tomato during this period due to lack of suitable varieties. The recommended open-pollinated varieties generally do not perform well during the WS.

Starting in mid 1980’s, the Mariano Marcos State University (MMSU) and the Department of Agriculture (DA) have been actively involved in the National Cooperative Testing (NCT) of tomato, but none of the tomato varieties released by the Philippine Seed Board, including those claimed to be all-season, showed good performance and stable yields during the WS trials. These cultivars could not tolerate the hot/humid conditions of the area, resulting in excessive flower drop and abortion. Further, these cultivars could not withstand the damage caused by strong typhoons, a common phenomenon in the Ilocos provinces during the WS.

>Vegatative Propagation of Commercially Grown Bamboo Species by Marcotting (Samsam and Garma, 2000, as cited by MMSU-RD Website, 27 June 2009)

Vegetative propagation of different bamboo species by marcotting with the use of different rooting media was conducted at the Mariano Marcos State University from 1998 to 2000. The study aimed to determine the most effective and economical rooting media for marcotting different bamboo species.

Four exotic and one endemic bamboo species were marcotted using different rooting media. These are Buddha (Bambusa ventricosa Me Clure), Bayog (Dendrocalamus merillianus Elm), Giant Bamboo (Gigantolochloa asper), Machiku (Dendrocalamus latiflorus) and Kawayan tinik (Bambusa spinosa Roxb.) The rooting media used were sphagnum moss, coco-coir and sawdust. The rooted marcots were planted in polyethelene bags and were raised in the nursery before outplanting. The propagules were outplanted before the onset of the succeeding rainy season. The response of the different bamboo species to the rooting media were measured in terms of rooting efficiency, growth and survival of marcots under nursery condition and plant growth and shoot development under field condition.

B2. Present Studies

>Analysis of the Components of the Indigenous Botanical Pesticides Used by Ilocano Farmers (Lutap, Atis, Agbigay, Remolacio, Galagcag and Llaguno, 2006)

This present study of MMSU Research Directorate is under the project Documentation and Validation of Indigenous Pest Management Practices of Farmers in Ilocos Norte.  This study is conducted to know the components of botanical pesticides used by farmers in Ilocos Norte. It is expected to be finished on December 31, 2010.

>Data-Processing System Design for Manufacturing Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Ilocos Norte (Tagay, Dy, Julian and Galapon, as cited by MMSU-RD Website, 27 June 2009)

This present study of MMSU Research Directorate is under the project Development of Globally-Competitive Tourism in Ilocos Norte, which is under the program Comparative Economic Analysis of Selected Vegetables and High Value Crops (HVCs) Research and Development Programs in Ilocos Norte. The study was started in year 2007.

B3. Future Studies

>Adoption and Piloting of Modified Banana Production Technology for the Ilocos (MMSU-RD Website, 27 June 2009)

This study will be conducted by MMSU Researchers Gliceria Pascua, Maxima Ines, Maria Luisa Gabriel and Concepcion Birginias. The study is expected to be completed by year 2016.

C. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)

>Established in 1960, IRRI is the largest non-profit agricultural research center in Asia, with headquarters in the Philippines and offices in 14 nations. Supported by donors and partners around the globe, it is known as the home of the Green Revolution in Asia. The institute helps feed almost half the world’s population. Its mission is to reduce poverty and hunger, improve the health of rice farmers and consumers, and ensure that rice production is environmentally sustainable.

C1. Past Studies: Discovery of Rice Varieties

>Discovery of Salt-Tolerant Rice (IRRI Website, 27 June 2009)

In the Philippines, around 400,000 hectares of coastal rice-growing land is affected by salinity from sea water. Farmers often don’t plant this region because of the risk of crop failure, but, with the new salt-tolerant variety IR63307-4B-4-3, they can now use this land to grow rice.

Under high salt stress, high-yielding Philippine rice varieties typically produce less than a ton of rice per hectare. Under the same conditions, IR63307-4B-4-3 can produce 2.5 to 3.5 tons of rice per hectare. However, in the absence of salinity, this salt-tolerant variety can yield 6.5 to 7.0 tons per hectare.

In addition to the salt-tolerance trait built into IR63307-4B-4-3, proper crop management is essential to achieving high grain yield in salt-affected soils. This includes water management through strong and effective levies to check sea-water ingression, planting of older seedlings (to avoid salt damage when the plants are young and at a sensitive stage), and suitable nutrient management. The extra costs of these practices are readily offset by the value of the overall increase in productivity.

The total potential of increased rice production from salt-affected areas in the Philippines could be 0.8 to 1.0 million tons per annum and the new rice variety, IR63307-4B-4-3, could contribute substantially if grown across all of the Philippines’ salt-prone lands. In Bangladesh, the same variety was released in 2007 as BRRI dhan 47 and it has been widely adopted by farmers, who are undertaking large-scale seed production to fulfill demand as word spreads about its yield advantages.

IRRI’s rice research on salt-tolerance is financially supported by the Federal Government of Germany and the CGIAR Generation Challenge Programme. It is done in collaboration with national partners especially from South and Southeast Asia.

>GMO Rice (Bengwayan, 2000 as cited by Biotech-Info Website, 27 June 2009)

Devlin Kuyek, a researcher and writer of the booklet “BB Rice, IRRI’s First Transgenic Field Test” released last May says BB-rice is a genetically modified crop of the rice variety IR72. It is genetically engineered with a gene from an African rice found in Mali called Oryza longistaminata . The gene, called Xa21, is found in the chromosome of the African rice. It was discovered in 1977 as resistant to bacterial blight by the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) of India.

IRRI, through its chief breeder Dr. Gurdev Khush who is also head of the Genetic and Biochemistry Division, was able to get a sample of the gene and conducted years of breeding to transfer the gene to IRRI’s IR24 variety. The gene was successfully isolated to produce resistant lines against bacterial blight.

The Xa21 gene was cloned by Dr. Pamela Ronald, then of the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) in 1995 for genetic engineering. But it was done closely with Dr. Swapan Datha, IRRI’s biotechnologist. Together with colleagues, from UC Davis, they filed and now own the patent of the gene.

Their efforts were complemented by the International Laboratory for Tropical Agriculture Biotechnology (ILTAB) in California. Today, the XA 21 gene has been genetically engineered with the wild West African rice, a Chinese rice variety and two IRRI varieties-IR64 and IR72. The gene XA21 showed resistance to 29 strains of bacterial blight.

While there is no way to determine how the wild West African rice was plucked out from its natural habitat by a an Indian scientist working for the CRRI in 1977, it is most likely that the wild rice was pirated, without the knowledge of the native Mali people who have nurtured the rice for centuries. XA21, a product of that wild rice, has become a potential multi-million dollar source of income by the scientists and institutions that patented it.

C2. Present Studies: Discovery of Rive Varieties

>New Rice Variety thrives on Saline Water (Philippine Daily Inquirer, 13 June 2009)

After the scuba rice which was designed to survive water submergence, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) has announced the development of another rice variety that can tolerate saline waters.

The IR63307-4B-4-3 rice variety contains the Saltol gene that is responsible for the salinity tolerance trait of the plant, according to IRRI scientist Dr. Rakesh Kumar Singh.

The variety can survive for about 20 days in coastal rice-growing lands affected by salinity from seawater.

>GM rice yields 50% more harvest even with less fertilizer and water use (Manila Bulletin Website, 2009 as cited by IRRI Website, 28 June 2009)

A genetically modified (GM) rice that can give 50 percent more harvest while requiring less fertilizer and water is seen as a long term solution to low yield in resource-scarce, poverty-stricken farms threatened by climate change. The GM rice will have more efficient carbon dioxide capture with its enhanced capacity for photosynthesis, the process of using solar energy to capture carbon dioxide and converting it into growth-inducing carbohydrate in plants. Some rice plants have inefficient means for photosynthesis, known as C3. However, Dr. John Sheehy, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) project leader for the GM rice, said that using C4 photosynthesis, rice plant’s capacity to convert solar energy in producing a richer grain can be enhanced particularly in tropical climates. “Converting the photosynthesis of rice to C4 would increase yields by 50 percent, and that C4 would also use water twice as efficiently. The benefits of this breakthrough would be immense in developing countries where billions of poor people rely on rice as staple,” said Sheehy.

C3. Future Studies

>Future Studies in Connection with Rice Harvest Trends and Global Warming (IRRI Press Release, 2004)

Previous modeling studies on the effects of global warming were based on increases in mean daily temperature and did not account for the greater effects of global warming on nighttime temperatures. Therefore, future studies must focus on developing crop simulation models that are more sensitive to the differential effects of global warming on night versus daytime temperatures, and on better understanding the reasons for greater sensitivity to nighttime.

D. Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI)

>The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI), the principal research arm of the government in food and nutrition, is one of the research and development institutes of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). It was created under Executive Order No. 128 signed on January 30, 1987. As such, the Institute is committed to pursue the goals and objectives of the National Science and Technology Plan (NSTP) and the Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition (PPAN).

For sixty-one yeas, the Institute continues to provide relevant technologies and scientific information on food and nutrition. Some of its major accomplishments include the development and commercialization of nutritional food products; conduct of periodic nationwide nutrition surveys; development of analytical food quality and safety assurance system; strategies and programs to address the malnutrition problem and tools, guidelines and standards to serve the needs of nutrition and nutrition-related workers. All these technologies are transferred to health and nutrition program implementers as well as the households and communities with the end view of improving the quality of life of Filipinos.

D1. Past Studies

>Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Food and Nutrition Among Schoolchildren, Mothers/Caregivers (of 1-5 Year Old Children), Pregnant and Lactating Women in Selected Philippine Barangays (Palafox, Villavieja, Nones, Juguan and Cerdeña, 2002)

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a product-evaluation-alliance program in improving the micronutrient intake status and awareness on nutrition among children, pregnant and lactating women. The baseline survey was aimed at assessing the existing knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the target beneficiaries and the changes, if any, in a repeat survey undertaken after a year. Both baseline and repeat surveys were conducted in 3 purposively selected provinces and 3 cities of National Capital Region. Information on general nutrition, fortified foods, functions and sources of micronutrients (specifically vitamin A, iron and iodine) and nutritional deficiencies were gathered with the use of a structured questionnaire. The data were processed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for WINDOWS.

>Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Bicol Region (Orense, Velandria, Duante, Tangco, dela Cruz, Mendoza, Mendoza and Saunar, 1996)

Two surveys were conducted in 1991 and 1996 to determine the prevalence of nutrition-related risk factors to cardiovascular diseases in the Bicol Region. A total of 3,386 adult men and women in 16 barangays of the four mainland provinces of the region were examined. Data were taken using a calibrated Dectecto scale (weight), steel tape (height), sphygmomanometer (blood pressure), 24-hour food recall (food intake) and questionnaire (type of activity). Blood samples were taken on a sub-sample of subjects for blood lipid analysis.

D2. Present Studies

>Growing Vegatables in Containers (Entria, 2009 as cited by Nutrinet Newsletter, 2009)

Even if you live in the city, you don’t need a vast space to grow your own supply of fresh vegetables. Many vegetables can be grown in small containers. Vegetables such as kangkong (swamp cabbage), carrots, radish, pechay, okra, eggplant, tomatoes, peppers, onions, and herbs require small space. These are perfect for vegetable container gardening.

Grow vegetables in any type of container: — old pail, basin, flower pot, ice cream gallon, wooden box, sando bag, large food can or even old tire, and bamboo. The size of the container will vary according to the vegetables and space available. Pots from 6 to 10 inches in size are good for green onions and herbs. For most vegetables such as tomatoes, peppers and eggplants, 5-gallon containers are the most suitable. These are easy to handle and provide adequate space for root growth.

>Fruits and Vegetables in Children’s Diet (Guirindola, 2009 as cited by Nutrinet Newsletter, 2009)

“My children don’t eat fruits and vegetables! How can I make my children like fruits and vegetables?” These are familiar lines of mothers about their children’s fruits and vegetable eating behavior.

So much has been written about the nutrition and health benefits of fruits and vegetables. These are packed with vitamins and minerals, dietary fiber and phytochemicals that are beneficial to one’s health. Consumption of fruits and vegetables remain low particularly among children despite all the benefits that can be gained from eating such. The unpopularity of fruits and vegetables is confirmed by the results of the 2003 Food Consumption Survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute – Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST). The survey reported per capita intake of fruits at 54 grams in 2003 as compared to 104 grams way back in 1978. On the same decreasing trend is the intake of vegetables which also dropped from 145 grams in 1978 to 111 grams in 2003.


            D3. Future Studies

>Energy Consumption of Filipino Old Women

E. Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium (ILARRDEC)

>The Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium (ILARRDEC) was created on December 21, 1979 when a memorandum of agreement (MOA) was signed between the Mariano Marcos State University (MMSU) its base and lead agency with three other agencies. ILARRDEC started as the Ilocos Agricultural Research Center (ILIARC) and gradually metamorphosed into the Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research Center (ILARRC) in 1985 and finally knot its present name in 1988. Today, the consortium is composed of 17 strong and cohesive agencies and has become a viable steward of R&D in the Ilocos Region.

The four founding members are the Mariano Marcos State University (MMSU), which is the lead agency; the erstwhile Cotton Research and Development Institute (CRDI), now the Cotton Development Administration (CODA); the erstwhile Philippine Tobacco  Research and Training Center, now part of the National Tobacco Administration (NTA); and the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD)

To date, the member agencies are as follows: Mariano Marcos State University (MMSU), Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMSU), Pangasinan State University (PSU); University of Northern Philippines (UNP), Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College (ISPSC), Union Christian College of Northern Development Organization for Rural Action (UCC-CONDORA); Department of Agriculture (DA)-1, NTA, CODA, Philippine Carabao Center (PCC), Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)-1, Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (ERDB), Department of Science and Technology (DOST)-1, PCARRD, National Economic and Development Authority, and Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) in Batac City, Ilocos Norte

E1. Past Studies

>Participatory Approach in the Selection of Indigenous Vegetables (Gabriel, Lutap, Legaspi, Asiao, Pascua, as cited by ILARRDEC Website, 28 June 2009)

One of the ways by which we could prevent the extinction of indigenous vegetables (IVs) is to optimize their utilization.  In the past, these plant species have been neglected and ignored, because of their unpopularity as source of food. These vegetables are rich in vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and fibers needed for healthy diet. The participatory approach in the selection of indigenous vegetables is a new a method.

>Potential Anthurium Varieties in Ilocos Region (ILARRDEC Website, 28 June 2009)


Anthuriums (A. andrenum) are perennial herbaceous plant with creeping, climbing, assurgent stems and prominently veined leaves. Anthuriums are grown chiefly for their showy flowers which consist of the spathes and spadices or for their exquisite velvety leaves.

The spathe, modified leaf, is usually the most attractive part of the anthurium flower. Typically, heart-shape variations on the length and width usually occur. The spathe comes in different colors – red, orange, pink, coral or white of varying shades.

Varieties suited under lowland condition

Ten anthurium varieties have been evaluated and screened for adaptability in the lowland. The five promising anthurium varieties are anue-nue, RCM-12, Nitta, De Weese and Kaumana. These varieties are high yielding and sucker production is relatively fair.

            E2. Present Studies

>Provincial Beekeeping Industry Model: Its Application to the Province of La Union (ILARRDEC Website, 28 June 2009)

The provincial apiculture model is an instrument to encourage the local government units (LGUs) to adopt the culture of honeybee as one component of their agricultural programs with the National Apiculture Research Training and Development Institute (NARTDI) providing the technologies.   The culture of honeybees has high economic potential due to the high demand for honeybee products such as honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly, bees wax, and package bees.    La Union, as the host province of the NARTDI, has adapted the model in 2004.  Today, there are 45 beekeeper-cooperators, 25 from the first district and 20 from the second district.   Few of these cooperators had good experiences in beekeeping, while most of them are beginners who received the colony stocks from the program assistance fund of the provincial government.  The beekeepers who were technically assisted by NARTDI-DMMMSU were organized into cooperative and are now managing their colonies individually — including harvesting, packaging and marketing — while establishing the processing, packaging and marketing center.

>Fertilizer Requirements of Newly-Established Plantations of Some Timber (Rosario, Samsam and Jamias, as cited by ILARRDEC Website, 28 June 2009)

The use of indigenous species in the reforestation of denuded forest lands is increasingly advocated.  Utilizing these species in our reforestation activities could increase their economic value and, consequently, reduce the pressure on the remaining commercial timber species. However, since most reforestation areas are nutrient deficient, soil amelioration through the use of fertilizer is necessary to improve the growth and survival of out planted seedlings.

The most suitable type and rate of fertilizer that could   improve the growth and survival of two timber species (dao and supa) and six lesser-used tree species (Bangkal, banaba, kariskis, panglomboien, piling-liitan and sakat) were tested at the Mariano Marcos State University (MMSU), Batac, Ilocos Norte.  The effects of the treatments were evaluated based on the percentage survival and on the height and diameter growth of the out planted seedlings.  The costs of applying the fertilizer treatments were also compared.


            E3. Future Studies

>Preparation of High-Strength Bamboo Sheet

F. University of the Philippines in Los Baños Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, Development and Extension (UPLB-OVCRE)

Research and extension at the University of the Philippines Los Baños(UPLB) began with the founding of the UP College of Agriculture (UPCA) in 1909.

The UPCA was at the forefront of agricultural research, experimenting and generating knowledge on tropical agriculture when at that time, it was acknowledged there was virtually none.

The College was well-known in scientific and academic communities even before World War II, when UPCA had already ceveloped numerous and improved crops and livestock such as animal breeds — the Berkjala swine and the Los Baños Cantonese chicken.

            F1. Past Studies

>New hibiscus hybrid named after researcher (Flores, 2009 as cited by UPLB-RDE News Website, 28 June 2009)

The Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB) of the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) has named a hybrid of Hibiscus rosasinensis (gumamela) after Dr. Solita Camara-Besa, the first Filipina to specialize in biological chemistry.

Hibiscus rosa sinensis “Solita Camara-Besa” is the 35th honoree of the Hibiscus Hybrid Women of Science Series since the IPB began the project on hibiscus breeding in December 1994.

The project was aimed at developing hibiscus hybrids with “stunning” flower colors and appearance, improve the native cultivars, and develop new varieties with varied colors and appearance.

>Bignay, kalumpit and ubi high in antioxidant – study (Philippine News Agency, 2009 as cited by UPLB-RDE News Website, 28 June 2009)

Bignay, kalumpit and ubi are high in antioxidant, thus says a study titled “Antioxidant Potential and Components of Philippine Vegetables and Fruits” which was funded by the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) after subjecting 15 fruits and vegetables which were initially supposed to be high in antioxidant activity.

The 15 fruits and vegetables which were subjected to this study were: malunggay (Moringa oleifera), bignay (Antidesma bunios (L) K. Spreng), squash (Cucurbita maxima), eggplant (Solanum melongena), patola (Luffa spp.), tiesa (Lucuma nervosa), mangosteen (Garciniana mangostana), durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.), kalumpit (Terminalia microcarpa Decne), alugbati (Basella alba L.), ampalaya (Momordica charantia), bago (Gnenum gnemon), sayote (Sechium edule), saluyot (corchorus olitorius), sitao (Vigna sesquipedalis), and ubi (Dioscorea bulbifera).


            F2. Present Studies

>UPLB continues to search for the most viable biofuel (Quilinguing, 2009 as cited by UPLB-RDE News Website, 2009)
Of all locally grown possible sources of biofuel, sugarcane has emerged as the most immediate and readily-available bio-ethanol source, a UP Los Baños expert said.

UPLB College of Engineering and Agro-industrial Technology (CEAT)-Department of Chemical Engineering Chair and UPLB’s Alternative Energy Research, Development, and Engineering team convenor Rex Demafelis based his assessment on parameters that the team has developed to test the viability of biofuels. These consist of availability of sources, cost-effectiveness of production, optimal use of land, and the impact on communities near the alternative fuel source.

Demafelis said that viability studies looked into the manufacture of other value-added products made from biofuel, such as processed food, handicraft, clothing material, etc. thereby generating other livelihood opportunities.

>Researchers near completion of bacteria-based system for treating hazardous wastewater (Cruz, 2009 as cited by UPLB-RDE News Website, 28 June 2009)

Biotechnologists at UP Los Baños are hard at work putting the final touches to the prototype of a wastewater treatment system that uses bacteria.

A heightened awareness of the condition of its rivers had led local government units and concerned agencies in the province of Bulacan to tap BIOTECH of UP Los Baños for help in setting up bioremediation solutions, which are less costly and more environment-friendly than conventional chemical treatments.

Dr. Lorele C. Trinidad, researcher at BIOTECH, and leader of the team that is developing the bioremediation system, reported that the prototype they have developed can remove and at the same time recover heavy metals from water discharged during processing of gold and leather tanning.

            F3. Future Studies

> Research team rehabs contaminated sites using bioremediation (Quilinguling, 2009 as cited by UPLB-RDE News Website, 28 June 2009)

The Bioremediation Research Team of the National Academy of Science and Technology based in UP Los Baños is going to conduct studies to rehabilitate several contaminated sites in the country. These include an abandoned mining site at Mogpog, Marinduque, and bodies of water in Bulacan.

In Mogpog, Marinduque, a team of experts from UPLB headed by College of Arts and Sciences Dean and micro-biologist Dr. Asuncion K. Raymundo has been examining both the soil and bodies of water in the vicinity of an abandoned mining site and has found them heavily contaminated.  Funded by Philippine Council for Agriculture and Forestry Research and Development (PCARRD) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), the team was able to plant narra, banaba, and alibangbang in the wasteland with some intervention such as the use of compost, lime, and fungi (Mykovam) despite the presence of heavy metal contamination.


G. National Economic Development Authority (NEDA)

>The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), as mandated by the Philippine Constitution, is the country’s independent economic development and planning agency. It is headed by the President as chairman of the NEDA board, with the Secretary of Socio-Economic Planning, concurrently NEDA Director-General, as vice-chairman. Several Cabinet members, the Central Bank Governor, ARMM and ULAP are likewise members of the NEDA Board.

            G1. Past Studies

>1999 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (cited by NEDA Website, 28 June 2009)

The APIS is a nationwide survey designed to provide inputs to the development of an integrated poverty indicator and monitoring system which would enhance timely, accurate and consistent production of poverty-related data for users at the national level for policy and planning.
>Implementation of Agenda for Action on Social Development (cited by NEDA Website, 28 June 2009)

This paper presents an update on the Philippine government’s implementation of its Agenda for Action on Social Development for the period 1995-1997. It is organized along the core themes of the Agenda for Action and Programme of Action, namely: poverty alleviation, employment expansion and social integration.

         G2. Present Studies

>Philippine Statistical Yearbook (cited by NEDA Website, 28 June 2009)

The PSY presents, in time series, historical information about the country’s macro, and micro-environment. It contains data which are disaggregated in different dimensions. These data can be useful in the conduct of strategic planning, policy, program and project formulation, business/investment decision making, research and feasibility studies.

>Weekly Economic Updates (NEDA Website, 28 June 2009)

Every week, the National Economic Development Authority releases economic reports every week on its webpage


         G3. Future Studies

>Philippine Statistical Yearbook 2009

H. Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI)

>The Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) is the research and development arm on forest products utilization of the Philippines’ Department of Science and Technology (DOST), the body that coordinates and manages the national science and technology system.

The Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) was created in 1954 as the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) under the then Bureau of Forestry.  It was located, as it is now, in the campus of the University of the Philippines Los Banos- College of Forestry and Natural Resources (UPLB-CFNR).

The Laboratory was established in response to the need for information and technology on the utilization of timber resources as well as non-wood forest products.  At that time the Philippines was the prime exporter of forest products in Asia.

            H1. Past Studies

>Bio-Based Composites (Eusebio, 2008 as cited by FPRDI Website, 28 June 2009)

This program focuses on the sustainable development of composite products from bio-resources (wood/non-wood), plastic waste stream (plastics), processing wastes and agricultural residues.  It aims to introduce adaptable production processes and technologies that will support the forest-based industries in addressing the government’s housing program in terms of producing affordable housing, furniture and packaging materials.

>Bioenergy, Resins and Oils (Fidel, 2008 as cited by FPRDI Website, 28 June 2009)

In 2008, the Bio-Energy, Resins and Oils program will continue to align its R&D initiatives with the DOST’s SePA (Seven Point Agenda), together with FPRDI’s MTP and Investment Portfolio.The program will focus its development works on biotechnology, bio-energy, environment and health/personal care products.  The program will implement a total of nine (9) projects.  Eight are regularly-funded projects, 1 foreign-funded and 1 cooperative project.  Among the regularly-funded projects, six are continuing and two are newly-implemented.

The program will generate improved technologies and information to process and utilize natural products alternative materials for the energy, health, chemical and paper industries.  Additional R and D outputs under the program will be on equipment improvement for charcoal briquettes.


            H2. Present Studies

>Development of Cement-Bonded Board from Bamboo and Cornstalk (FPRDI Website, 28 June 2009)

Every Filipino dreams of owning a house. But the high cost of construction materials tempers this dream.

To address this issue, the Department of Science and Technology’s Forest Products Research and Development Institute or FPRDI continues to search for affordable yet durable construction materials that best suit the economic and climatic requirements in the Philippines.

Made from locally available agro-forest waste materials, CBBs are commonly used as exterior panels, interior partition walls, cabinets and ceilings. They are generally known for their resistance to fire, water damage, fungal and termite attack. They also provide excellent sound and thermal insulation.

>Builders Woodworks and Structural Components (Cabangon, 2009 as cited by FPRDI Website, 28 June 2009)

The Program utilizes engineering concepts and principles to develop and evaluate engineered products that include structural components and builders’ woodworks in support to the housing, furniture and packaging industries, thereby utilizing wisely the wood and non-wood forest products resources of the country.

H3. Future Studies


>Furniture and Handicrafts (Natividad, as cited by FPRDI Website, 28 June 2009)



Generate information and technologies to broaden the resource base and enhance the production of furniture, handicrafts, and other related products from ITPS and non-wood forest products (NWFP) in the country.


1.Conduct R&D on the utilization of some ITPS, bamboo and other forest-based materials for furniture, handicrafts, packaging and other related products;

2.Develop guides for the identification of some economically important non-timber forest products and assess their distribution, volume and existing/potential utilization for industrial or rural enterprises.

3. Develop appropriate processing techniques, equipment and standards to improve/upgrade performance and quality of products from some ITPS and non-timber forest products; and

4.    Prepare technical reports, monographs and handbooks on the generated information and technologies to promote and facilitate technology diffusion in the forest-based industries.

I. Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRICE)

            >Response to an urgent need

Rice is crucial to the Philippines’ political stability and national security. It is the country’s staple food and many Filipinos depend on it for a living. However, increasing population, shrinking rice hectarage, and damage caused by natural calamities, as well as man-made problems beset the rice industry. Compounding these is a policy environment that is more favorable to traders and millers.

While relevant rice research and development (R&D) efforts were done before the 1980s to address problems besetting the rice industry, efforts were at best fragmented and, therefore, did not translate into sustained rice self-sufficiency. Funding support for rice R&D was also negligible primarily because of the country’s dependence on the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). But with a global mandate, IRRI cannot respond to all the needs of any one country. It can better help solve the Philippines’ rice problems if the country has a strong national rice R&D body that will localize and bring IRRI’s technologies to the farms. (PhilRice Website, 28 June 2009)

Meeting of the minds

In March 1985, within the confines of the University of the Philippines (UP), UP System President Edgardo J. Angara convened a committee to brainstorm the establishment of a national rice research institute. Later called the Executive Committee, the group was composed of UP Los Baños (UPLB) Vice-Chancellor for Administration Domingo M. Lantican and Director of Research Ricardo M. Lantican; Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food (MAF) Domingo F. Panganiban; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Executive Director Ramon V. Valmayor; IRRI Director General M.S. Swaminathan; and National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) Agriculture Staff Director Manuel de Leon.

As a result of the brainstorming, a technical interagency committee chaired by Dr. R.M. Lantican was formed to draft the proposal. The proposal was submitted in May 1985 to Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos through MAF Minister Salvador H. Escudero III.

Finally, on November 5, 1985, President Marcos signed Executive Order (EO) 1061 creating the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). It was subsequently amended by EO 60 signed by Pres. Corazon C. Aquino on November 7, 1986, strengthening PhilRice by increasing its membership to improve representations in the rice industry in its highest policymaking body, the Board of Trustees (BOT). (PhilRice Website, 28 June 2009)

Laying the groundwork

Minister of Agriculture Ramon V. Mitra and UP System PresidentEdgardo J. Angara identified and recommended the members of the PhilRice BOT for appointment by President Aquino.

While a director has not yet been appointed, an Executing Committee chaired by UPLB College of Agriculture Dean Ruben L. Villareal laid the groundwork for PhilRice’s program plan and operations. In June 1987, PhilRice operations went full swing with the assumption to office of its first Executive Director, Dr. Santiago R. Obien. Dr. Obien brought with him his experience as president of the Mariano Marcos State University (MMSU) and director of the Philippine Tobacco Research and Training Center (PTRTC).  With Dr. Obien at the helm, the Executing Committee was dissolved and a PhilRice-UPLB Management Committee was created to select UPLB staff members to be seconded to PhilRice as program leaders. The Committee’s functions were gradually reduced as PhilRice got organized. (PhilRice Website, 28 June 2009)

I1. Past Studies


Literature research of Garma, Mayubay and Opelac (2009) revealed the topics of past researches of PhilRice.

>Discovery of Different Rice Varieties in the Philippines

>Ways to Solve Different Pests/Integrated Pest Management

>Formulations of Organic Fertilizers

I2: Present and Future Studies


>The following is the R&D Program of PhilRice for years 2006 to 2010


Favorable Ecosystem
(Irrigated Lowland)

Unfavorable Ecosystem
(Rainfed Lowland)

Key Result Area


Direct Seeded

Variety Project 1Development of varieties for transplanted rice systems with high yield, performance stability, disease and insect pest resistance, and good grain quality. Project 2Development of varieties for direct-seeded rice systems with high yield, performance stability, disease and insect pest resistance, good grain quality, and submergence tolerance. Project 7Development of varieties for rainfed lowland ecosystems with high yield, disease and insect pest resistance, good grain quality, and drought tolerance.
Tillage and crop establishment Project 3Development of tillage and crop establishment technologies for irrigated rice culture with emphasis on leveling and water constraints. Project 8Development of tillage and crop establishment technologies for rainfed lowland rice culture with emphasis on leveling and optimizing water use-efficiency.
Water Management Project 4Development of water use- efficient technologies under favorable rice ecosystems.
Integrated Nutrient Management Project 5Development of location-specific nutrient management technologies for favorable rice ecosystems based on broad agro-climatic characterization. Project 9Development of location-specific nutrient management technologies under unfavorable ecosystems based on broad agro-climatic characterization.
Integrated Pest Management Project 6Development of pest management technologies for irrigated lowland rice with emphasis on weed management under direct-seeded culture and, forecasting of pest emergence. Project 10
Development of pest management technologies under unfavorable rice ecosystems with emphasis on forecasting of pest emergence.
Basic seed prod., seed health, & germplasm mgt. Project 11Nucleus seed production, seed health, and germplasm resource conservation and utilization.
Project 12Development of rice machinery with emphasis on harvesting.
Knowledge Management and Promotion
Project 13Database management.
Project 15Village-level integration of technologies and systems.
Project 16Integrated area-based technology promotion.
Project 17Training course development and delivery.
Project 18Knowledge products generation and information dissemination.
Impact and Policy Research
Project 19Adoption and impact
Project 20Integrated farm household analysis
Project 21Policy advocacy and research
Project 22Market research
Project 23Total factor productivity
Project 24Special project

J. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute


> The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) is a not-for-profit oceanographic research center in Moss Landing, California affiliated with the Monterey Bay Aquarium. It was founded in 1987 by David Packard of Hewlett-Packard fame. Scientists, engineers, and institute staff conduct a large variety of research projects ranging from studies on the molecular biology of bioluminescence to investigations describing global climate change. Moss Landing was chosen as the location for MBARI because it is located in the center of Monterey Bay, at the head of the Monterey Canyon, and is one of the most diverse marine-life areas on earth.

J1. Studies


The institute is not open to the general public, but it has an open house once a year for the general public. Approximately 200 people work at MBARI—the operating budget is about $40,000,000 per year.

MBARI operates three research vessels on a routine basis for both resident and visiting scientists and engineers. The R/V Western Flyer is a twin hull ship operating an ROV, Tiburon, through a moon pool in the center of the ship and is generally used for overnight cruises. Tiburon means “shark” in Spanish, and the ROV was named by engineer Daniel Davis after he noted the shark-like power and violent turbulence Tiburon expelled from her thrusters. The R/V Point Lobos operates daily with its ROV, Ventana. The R/V Zephyr also operates frequently and is used to deploy MBARI’s AUVs as well as a support vessel for mooring (buoy) operations.


12 thoughts on “Research Paper in Science Research by Garma, Mayubay & Opelac (2009) :: CHAPTER 4: Research Institutes and its Studies”

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